9 types of bias that cloud our everyday judgments

Do you consider yourself an objective, unbiased thinker? I think it's safe to say that most people think they are. We think we can weigh equally on all sides and reach logical, objective conclusions. What most people don't know is that there are many kinds of prejudices that prevent us from doing just that every day. Psychologists keep finding new kinds of biases that cloud our judgment and keep us from reaching the fairest, most accurate conclusions. For example, biased overestimation has only recently been named and defined. That's when you overestimate how many people will enjoy or dislike something. With an overstatement bias, we know how we feel about the various pros and cons, so we allow ourselves to have a subtle eye for something if others simply like or dislike more than we do. ((BTS Digest: we consistently overestimate how many people will use or pay for things)) For example, we overestimate how much someone else would like a tropical vacation because we know how we would feel about mosquitoes and sunburn but we do not think of others, what is the same nuanced ambivalence. Or we overestimate how much we dislike drinking hot sauce from a bottle. Again, we can weigh the pros and cons for ourselves, but not for others, which is why we tend to think people will dislike unpleasant things more than we do. Overestimating bias is just one of many types of bias, and there's an easy way to change the way you think so you don't fall prey to it - by knowing about overestimating bias, we're better able to reach fair, more accurate conclusions about how much or how little people will enjoy things. Being aware of bias will help you think more carefully the next time you buy someone a gift or determine the price others are willing to pay for what you are selling. You'll be better equipped to take a more accurate view of how others will think of what the gift or item is, therefore, better equipped to compensate for overstatement bias. Let's take a look at 9 other common biases and how you can keep them in mind and don't let them influence your decisions.

1. Fixing Displacement

We tend to place more weight on the very first information we hear. Imagine that you are selling your house. You get your first offer for $50 less than the asking price. Anchor bias says that you will place more weight, give more importance, to this sentence because it is the first one.((It is very good to remember: how anchor bias psychology affects decision making)) This first offer is more likely to change your mind about how much your home is worth than any future offer.

How to be less biased

Bias anchoring often involves money and what we think things are worth, so it's important to keep that in mind when making financial decisions. I know that the first piece of information you receive is no more important than the fifth. You can also get the upper hand in the negotiations by creating the first offer. Because of the peg offset, it will be more likely to wiggle how much others think you are buying or selling is worth.

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2. Availability Heuristic

The availability heuristic is a fancy way of saying that we overestimate the importance of any information we have easy access to.((Lab Decision: why we tend to think that what happened recently is likely to happen again)) we rely too heavily on those examples that come to our mind quickly, instead of weighing everything the same. Watching the news is just one example of this type of bias. We see a lot of stories of violence and disaster, so we're much more likely to think the world is dangerous, although we could do some light googling to see that the world is actually safer in many ways than it was a few decades ago.

How to be less biased

Again, knowledge is power when it comes to having a heuristic. Remind yourself that unconfirmed information is not statistically significant in decision making. Your Aunt Sue winning the lottery does nothing to improve your chances of winning.

3. Trip effect

When we talk about types of displacement, the attachment effect is quite common. We are more likely to sway more people around us to think a certain way.((Psychic floss: 20 Cognitive Bias That Influence Your Decisions)) I think that to serve on the jury. If, in the initial vote, everyone says they are guilty except you, you are much more likely to also believe that the defendant is guilty. Herd mentality is very similar to peers.

How to be less biased

Stick to the facts. Knowing that people think a certain way does not make them right, even if many people think the same way.

4. Confirmation Bias

Confirmation bias may be the most common type of bias. This is when people only listen to information that confirms what they already believe. Social media is like heaven's confirmation bias. Think of your uncle Steve who loves political candidate A. He only watches news and promotional posts about how great his candidate is. This creates an echo chamber where any information to the contrary cannot be avoided.

How to be less biased

Listen to the counterargument and consider it seriously. If you only watch Fox News, start checking out on MSNBC. If you only read The New York Times, start reading The Wall Street Journal. The more seriously we consider other perspectives, the more likely we are to reach a better conclusion. Learn more about it here: what is evidence bias in psychology and what to do about it

5. Dunning-Kruger Effect

The Dunning-Kruger effect explains why the more you know about something, the less sure you are of your competence. On the other hand, the less you know, the more simplified your understanding. Therefore, you are more confident in your understanding of something. ((Psychology Today: 12 Common Bias That Influence How We Make Everyday Decisions))

How to be less biased

If you find yourself very confident about your experience in something, take a step back and focus on what you don't already know or understand. Strive for complexity. If something seems too simple, then the problem may be that you don't know enough yet to be complex.

6. Fundamental Attribution Error

The fundamental attribution error is when you make contextual excuses for your mistakes and shortcomings, but don't do it for others. The most famous example is bad driving. If we meandered across the road, we quickly assume a conscious perception of our own movement. We know that we are just having a bad morning or that we have a lot on our minds today. However, when we see another so-called bad driver, the fundamental attribution error means that we are quick to blame their driving on the fact that they are old or a woman, or some other stereotype or generalization, even though the other driver's situation is just as adept. like our own.

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How to be less biased

Any time you stereotype someone based on their flaws, test yourself. You have probably fallen victim to a fundamental attribution error. Tell yourself that they are probably having a bad day or that you just don't know what their situation is. If you're allowed to be subtle and complex, so they must.

7. Group Prejudice

The group bias is similar to the fundamental attribution error, but instead of thinking that we are better than others, we think that members of our group are better than members of other groups. We have a more favorable opinion of the people in our group just because they are in our group.

How to be less biased

As a fundamental attribution error, you must actively consider the nuances and complexities of people outside your group if you are to compensate for your group biases.

8. Optimism/Pessimism Bias

The next skew is really two different types of skew. The tendency to be optimistic, where you are more inclined to think that everything will end well when you are in a good mood. Whereas the bias in pessimism is when you are more likely to think things will end badly when you are in a bad mood.

How to be less biased

Become emotionally intelligent. If you want to compensate for these types of bias, know and understand how you are currently feeling and save important decisions when you are in a more beige mood.

9. Selective Perception

This addiction explains why some people seem to only see what they want to see. Selective perception is all about our expectations influencing our perception. For example, you might expect your friend to be in your presentation because they are your friends and you think they are amazing. Selective perception is the reason you may not notice all of your friend's mistakes, but notice all the mistakes on other hosts.

How to be less biased

Keep your expectations in check to avoid selective perception. You can even pretend that you don't have any expectations. Simply put, be aware of all kinds of bias and try to keep an open mind about everything.

Final Thoughts

One final bias gives us the best remedy for dealing with all other bias types: blind bias. Bias Blind explains why people notice other people's cognitive biases but not their own notifications. Therefore the best solution to overcome all kinds of bias is to take a long hard look in the mirror. Educate yourself about the types of bias and then make a thoughtful inventory about your own biases. And if you don't think you have a prejudice, keep looking in the mirror because that's your blind bias I'm talking about. Just like all of us, you have prejudices. But being aware of them and being introspective about how they affect your decisions is a good way to not let them have the final say.

More than something to think clearly

  • How to think clearly and become smarter
  • Why Our Minds Can't Be Trusted and What We Can Do About It
  • Do you think you're smart (if you think you're not smart enough)
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